Since the fall of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011, after 42 years in power, Libya has been in a state of perpetual turmoil. A succession of convoluted councils and governments, claiming to exercise sovereignty over some or all of Libya, have come and gone. Politically, Libya is a failed state and has been so for the best part of a decade. This is lamentable, considering that reserves of oil, the largest in Africa, were discovered well over 50 years ago.
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