KCS GAD Risk Map Brief: Spain July 2022


Corruption costs Spain a full 8% of its GDP, or €90bn EUR each year. Predominantly this is driven by kickbacks, bribery and embezzlement at local level between regional leaders and business chiefs to secure preferential contracts and treatment, with influence and promises being traded as much as the traditional ‘brown envelopes’. Each region thus operates as its own little fiefdom, with local lines of power and control being controlled by the…
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